Originally, Turks lived in dome-like tents appropriate to their natural surroundings, deserts, as they were nomads. These tents later influenced Turkish architecture and ornamental arts.
Turkish Architecture and the Seljuk Turks
At the time when the Seljuk Turks first came to Iran, they encountered an architecture based on old traditions. Integrating this with elements from their own traditions, the Seljuks produced new types of structures. The most important type of structure they formulated was the” medrese”. The first medresses were constructed in the 11th century, the beginning of Turkish architecture.
Another area in which the Seljuks contributed to architecture is that of tomb monuments. These can be divided into two types: vaults and big dome-like mausoleums. Turkish architecture reached its peak during the Ottoman period.
The Ottomans and the Architecture in Turkey
The Ottoman period began in the 1300s when Ottoman art was in search of new ideas. During this period we encounter three types of the mosque: tiered single-domed and sub line-angled mosques. The Junior Haci Özbek Mosque in Iznik is the first example of Ottoman single-domed mosques.
The City and theArchitecture in Turkey
In Ottoman times the mosque did not exist by itself. It was looked on by society as being very much interconnected with city planning and communal life. Beside the mosque, there were soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths and tombs.
During the years 1720-1890, Ottoman art deviated from the principles of classical times. In the 18th century, during the Lale period, Ottoman art came under the influence of the excessive decorations of the west; Baroque, Rococo, Ampir and other styles intermingled with Ottoman art.
Neoclassical Period Architecture in Turkey
In Turkish architecture, the years 1890-1930 are looked upon as the neoclassical period. In this period, Turkish architects looked to the religious and classical buildings of former times for inspiration in their attempts to construct a national architecture. Nationalism, developing strongly after the second Ottoman constitutional period, freed Ottoman architecture from the influence of western art, and thereby brought about a new style based on classic Ottoman architecture.
Contemporary Architecture in Turkey
These notable works were followed by a new approach directed towards contemporary architecture. The Ismet Pasa Girls’ Institute, the Ankara Faculty of Letters, the Saracoglu district, the Grand Theatre and the Istanbul Hilton paved the way for recognition of contemporary architecture.
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